Acute Respiratory Infections Risk Factor Study

Title: ARI Risk Factor Study-Pune

Duration: 1 year

Collaborators: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Vadu Rural Health Program, KEM Hospital Research Centre Pune, India

Sponsor: USAID and WHO

Investigator:

Rationale:
The global estimates of leading causes of deaths by WHO for the year 2002 indicates that lower respiratory infections is one of the leading causes. Lower respiratory infections bear the major burden with 3.9 million deaths, followed by HIV/AIDS and diarrhoea. In case of under five children the Lancet child survival series estimates around 20% deaths which are attributable to lower respiratory infections especially pneumonia.

Aims and objectives:
1. To reliably measure handwash compliance
2. To measure the relative importance of handwashing to other risk factors for acute respiratory infection (ARI).
3. To measure the association of indoor air pollution and ARIs in children

Methodology:
This is a longitudinal prospective study in which a cohort of 700 households was randomly sampled from the Vadu HDSS area. These households with children aged 0-18 months were recruited and followed for 6 months. In this duration the incidence of ARI and diarrhoea were recorded and exposure to risk factors were assessed which include handwashing, indoor air pollution and other risk factors such as breast feeding, malnutrition, overcrowding, smoking etc. 

Study population / sample size: 700 households with children age 0-18 months.

Outcome: The ARI outcome was ascertained along with diarrhoea as the secondary outcome along with maternal outcome as well as assessed the two primary exposures i.e. handwashing and indoor air pollution. A comparison of the proxy indicators of domestic handwashing practices obtained from direct structured observation of handwashing was published and can be accessed as:  Comparing the performance of indicators of Hand-Washing practices in rural Indian households. Biran A, Rabie T, Schmidt W, Juvekar S, Hirve S, and Curtis V. Trop Med Int Hlth. 13 (2):278-285 2008, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304276


 

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