Title: “Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriage Study in South Asian Infants” is ongoing at KEMHRC, Vadu.

Sponsor: The University of Edinburgh Old College, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, United Kingdom

Objective: The Primary objective of this study is to estimate prevalence of pneumococcal carriage and serotype distribution among newborn and children. The Secondary Objectives are, “To measure the proportion of vaccine and non-vaccine types in the longitudinal cohort”, “Determination of load of pneumococcus in nasopharynx”, “Estimate prevalence of pneumococcal co-colonization, and distribution of dominant and sub-dominant serotypes”, and “To determine the rate of pneumococcal acquisition”. A comprehensive pneumococcal carriage study is important for understanding the benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and to facilitate the licensure and introduction of newer vaccines. Colonisation by multiple serotypes, or Co colonisation is an important factor to consider in such studies as it affects the progression to invasive disease, horizontal gene transfer and host to host transmission. According to the latest data available from WHO, 117 countries introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccines by the end of 2014, and the estimation of global coverage is 31%. With the introduction of PCV, serotype replacement and increase in invasive disease by non-vaccine serotypes have been reported in several countries. Therefore, in order to understand the pneumococcal carriage in the nasopharynx, particularly in the context of determining baseline carriage prior to trial of a novel pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, There is need to conduct studies in infants in populations where there is no introduction of PCV or vaccine and/or serotype coverage is very low, as well as in populations with good PCV coverage.

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